Micronutrients of human body-II

health Jul 12, 2021
Food practice for a menu shoot.
Photo by Randy Fath / Unsplash

B vitamins
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Source : Wholegrains, nuts, meat, milk, fruit, vegetables and fortified breakfast cereals.
Function : The release of energy from carbohydrate, normal function of the nervous system and heart.
Deficiency : Causes the nervous system disease beri-beri.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Source : Milk, eggs, rice, fortified breakfast cereals, liver, legumes (the fruits or seeds of anything that comes in a pod, e.g. beans, peas, lentils), mushrooms and green vegetables
Function : To release energy from protein, carbohydrate and fat, transport and metabolism of iron in the body, normal structure and function of mucous membranes and the skin.
Deficiency : Characterised by dryness and cracking of the skin around the mouth and nose, painful tongue that is red and dry (magenta tongue).
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Source : Meat, wheat flour, eggs, dairy products and yeast.
Function : The metabolism of carbohydrate to enable energy release from food normal function of the skin,  mucous membranes and the nervous system.
Deficiency : Characterised by sun-sensitive skin, known as pellagra
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
Source : egg yolks, organ meat, other meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, whole-grain cereal, broccoli, cauliflower, legumes
Function : pantothenic acid is also needed to make cholesterol, bile, some fats, red blood cells, hormones, nerve regulators, and Vitamin A, D. It works closely with biotin, vitamin B1, B2, B6, and niacin. It is changed to a substance called coenzyme A and this coenzyme helps convert fat, carbohydrate, and protein into energy.
Deficiency : Paresthesias (It is a sensation of burning, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin) and burning sensation in lower legs and feet, Joint and muscle aches, fading of hair color,  anemia, reduced immunity: impaired antibody response, headache, de pression, insomnia, and fatigue
Vitamin B6
Source : Poultry, white fish, milk, eggs, whole grains, soya beans and peanuts.
Function : Metabolism of amino acids, breaking down glycogen, modification of steroid hormone action, formation of red blood cells, metabolism and transport of iron, maintenance of normal blood homocysteine levels
Deficiency is rare as it is widely distributed in foods and synthesised in body’s gut flora.
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Source : Liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, and most fresh vegetables. It can also be made by intestinal bacteria
Function : Necessary for normal carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, healthy skin, hair, and nails.
Deficiency : Fatigue, loss of appetite, hair loss, red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genitals, nausea, vomiting, depression, muscle pain and anaemia.
Vitamin B12
Source : Found in almost all animal foods, like meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, yeast extract and fortified breakfast cereals and all dietary sources.
Function : Normal formation of red blood cells and the metabolism of folate, involved in energy production.
Deficiency : development of pernicious anaemia, where red blood cells are enlarged, and peripheral neurological damage develops
Folate/folic acid
Source : Green leafy vegetables, brown rice, peas, orange, bananas and fortified breakfast cereals.
Function : Works together with vitamin B12 to form healthy red blood cells, and normal cell division.
Deficiency : Deficiency results in neural tube defects in new-borns and megaloblastic anaemia, which is characterised by the release of immature red blood cells into the blood stream.

Continue Reading Part III or read the Part I


A. Sandhya

M.Sc Zoology

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